|What Are You Pointing At?|
“The first uniquely human forms of communication were pointing and pantomiming. The social-cognitive and social-motivational infrastructure that enabled these new forms of communication then acted as a kind of psychological platform on which the various systems of conventional linguistic communication (all 6,000 of them) could be built.”
|Why Point When You Can Text?|
Pic © Animal Communication
Communication: A Possible Beginning
|The Great Wall of China|
Pic © Visit China
Pic © How Stuff Works
“Smoke signals are made by creating a fire and then using a blanket or cover to create puffs of smoke or designs in the smoke to relay certain messages to other tribesman who are a distance away. The messages are not complex, but they are usually specific to each tribe so that an enemy will not be able to interpret the message. There were, however, some standard messages, known to most tribes: one puff would mean "attention;" two puffs, "all's well"; and three puffs "danger." Smoke could be manipulated into spirals, circles, zigzags, and parallel lines, and the color of the smoke could even be changed somewhat by the wood that is burnt.”
This may have been a good way of communicating long distances and is still a useful way today. For example, when someone is camping, smoke signals are an excellent means of communication to let people know that you are in that specific location and may be in danger if ever that is the case.
The Evolution of Communication
|Where Haven't Humans Negatively Impacted Earth?|
Pic © Antartica.Gouv.Au
Empathy: An Extension of Understanding
|Charles Darwin (1809- 1882)|
“Both rats and pigeons in the laboratory display a profound emotional response to the suffering of a conspecific and act to terminate the stress manipulation. Monkeys react similarly in experimental distress situations, even starving themselves to prevent a conspecific from being shocked in their presence. There are many striking examples of empathy in apes. Much research has empirically demonstrated the existence of consolation in chimpanzees, whereby one animal will act to soothe the distress of another.”
|Empathic Rats Spring Each Other From Jail|
Pic © Discover Magazine
Milwaukee County Zoo suffers from a serious heart condition. He is feeble, lacking the normal stamina and self-confidence of a grown male. When first moved to Milwaukee Zoo, the keepers’ shifting commands in the unfamiliar building thoroughly confused him. He failed to understand where to go when people urged him to move from one place to another. Other apes in the group would step in, however. They would approach Kidogo, take him by the hand, and lead him in the right direction.
Language and the Brain
|Can Bicycling Be The Key To Genius?|
Creating Relationships & Re-integrating Into Society:
Life With Dogs in Prison
|Pic © Care 2 Animals|
“Although the new findings don't prove that dogs fully understand all of the emotional aspects of human speech, they do show that dogs are at least paying attention to it, said study co-author Victoria Ratcliffe, a doctoral candidate in psychology at the University of Sussex in England.”
- Tia Ghose
|Be The Pack Leader Your Dog Deserves!|
Pic © USA Today
|Pic © Psychology Today|
“The first type of these programs was started in 1981 by Sister Pauline Quinn in the state of Washington. Since then, various Prison Pup Programs have been very successful in pairing inmates with assistance dogs in training. The dogs enter the prison enclosures in order to be raised before their final training as assistant dogs. Inmates are walked through training by the dog trainers before they are paired up with a puppy, and not just anyone can be chosen to be part of the Prison Pup program. Thorough background checks are performed, and the inmate needs to show a high level of maturity, willingness, and a clean discipline record.”
|Pic © Neads.org|
“But life wasn't always so cushy. Quinn was donated by a breeder to become one of the first dogs in the Maine Prison Pup program at a minimum-security prison in Portland, Maine. Dog trainers school prisoners on how to train dogs, and then those dogs are assigned to people who need service animals. Bringing the dogs through the prison program, Chenaux said, is "mutually beneficial." It lowers training costs for service dog owners and provides inmates a job skill set that can be used upon release. Quinn is named for the programs founder, Sister Pauline Quinn.”
|Sister Pauline Quinn & Quinn|
Pic © FriendsForFolks
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Pappas, B. (2012, September 13). Mystery of How Social Isolation Messes with Brain Solved. LiveScience.com.
Petersilia, Joan. (2001)."Prisoner re-entry: Public safety and reintegration challenges." The Prison Journal 81.3 p.360-375.
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Rizzolatti, Giacomo, and Michael A. Arbib (1998)."Language within our grasp." Trends in neurosciences 21.5 p. 188-194.
St Leger, Lawrence. (2003). "Health and nature—new challenges for health promotion." Health promotion international 18.3 p.173-175.
Tomasello, Michael. (2010). Origins of human communication. MIT press.
Uggen, Christopher, Jeff Manza, and Melissa Thompson. (2006)."Citizenship, democracy, and the civic reintegration of criminal offenders." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 605.1 p.281-310.