Exploring the Unknown

Exploring the Unknown

Friday, December 8, 2017

Criminological Perspectives: Quebec 1% Biker Wars By Keisha Tomasik

Pic © Valily Jewelry
In the province of Quebec, the 5th of December 1977 marks the birth of an important club that will later evolve into an organized crime based club, the Hells Angels. Known firstly as the Popeye's, this group counted 17 members and began its expansion once it was able to chase the rivals, The Outlaws, out of the country. Forward a couple of years and the Canadian Criminal Intelligence Service qualified the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club as the most important threat to the country. (Blanchet, 2017, p.19) As Sylvain Boulanger, an ex-biker of the Hells Angels mentions, “killing the opposition and making money” (Blanchet, 2017, p.9) are the main goals for the club. This is precisely what led to the reddening of the streets of Montreal and it’s outskirts in the mid 1990’s, due to the raging war in between the Hells Angels and the Rock Machines (Renaud, 2016, p.20). Driven by the desire for both clubs to have the monopoles of the drug trafficking in Quebec, this war caused 165 deaths and 181 injuries from 1994 to 2002 (Blanchet, 2017, p.11).

Consequently, this raised much concern from the authorities because of the substantial number of deaths.  From this concern was created Project Rush and Project Ocean. Projet Rush was targeted at investigating the leaders of the Hells Angels who were key factors in the war on drugs and Project Ocean was aimed at understanding how the Hells Angels structured their club (Cherry, 2005, p.2). Three years of investigation from april 1998 to march 2001, the evidence of an important amount of electronic surveillance transcripts done on no less than 150 members as well as the information gathered from infiltrated agents led to what is known as Opération Printemps 2001, the outcome of the joint fusion of Project Ocean and Rush as well as the case study for this research paper. Opération Printemps 2001 was put in place to firstly investigate thoroughly the society of the Hells Angels and then proceed to the tentative of dismantling the whole network of organized crime and drug trafficking.

Printemps 2001 was the first major anti biker raid of the history of Quebec and lead to 118 arrests of bike gang members. The “Criminal charges against those arrested ranged from weapons offences, money laundering, conspiracy, drug trafficking, murder, and gangsterism” (Morselli, 2009, p.149). As of the disclosure of evidence, this mega trial called upon testimony from 215 witnesses, 250 intercepted communications from electronic surveillance, 120 videocassettes, 70 audiovisual communications, 900 000 pages of document and 1150 surveillance operations (Boisvert et al., 2003, p. B2) For the purpose of this research paper, only nine of the accused will be taken in consideration as there is an imposing number of total arrests and it would be absurd to cover them all. As such, the arrests of Normand Robitaille, Denis Houle, Gilles Mathieu, Daniel Lanthier, Sylvain Laplante, René Charlebois, Jean-Guy Bourgouin, Pierre Provencher and Guillaume Serre based on accusations of  murder, drug trafficking and gangsterism will be analysed further.

The trial of the previously mentioned accused was treated in the Cour Supérieure du Québec by Judge Régean Paul, Prosecutor André Vincent and Defense lawyer Louis Belleau. It was treated in a Superior Court because the crimes are referred to as most serious and classified as “Supreme Court exclusive indictable offences” (Goff, 2017, p. 63). All in all, this trial lasted 66 days in front of a jury, heard testimonies from a total of 155 witnesses and deposited 534 pieces of conviction. The outcome of the trial that ended on the 11th of September 2003 was conviction on the basis of their guilty pleas regarding 13 homicide’s, drug trafficking and gangsterism. Resulting in imprisonment for 25 years ( Boisvert et al., 2003, p.B2).  Although our justice system’s primary goal is for the punishment to be proportionate to the crime committed, the sanction should have been lengthier considering the offenders were all repeat offenders (Goff, 2017, p.15). Although it is known knowledge, it could not be proven beyond any reasonable doubt that they had been repeat offenders.

Criminology seeks to explain the causes of a crime in a multidisciplinary way because different people have varied views on crime (Walklate, 2011, p.2). For the purpose of this research essay, I will therefore relate how the acts committed by these criminals convicted during the trial of the police investigation Printemps 2001 can be viewed from three different perspectives. Firstly, these deviant behaviours will be analyzed from a sociological perspective in order to understand how these “criminals” could have been socialized into deviants through the social control theory, the social process theory and labelling theory. Secondly, the psychological aspect will be raised and developed to understand how the modelling theory, attachment theory, behavioural theory and psychoanalytic view of criminology can help predispose humans into deviants. Finally, the deviant behaviours will be explained from a biological standpoint.  As such, this work supports the “theoretical approach” of positivism as it seeks to “ explain and predict” behaviour that are believed to emerge from outside of the individual’s control (Walklate, 2011, p.7).

Psychological Perspectives

Pic © Hells Angels
According to interactional theorists, people that are more likely to become members of gangs, such as the Hells Angels, experience weak social bonds within their family, friends and peers. Furthermore, being around other delinquents would reinforce someone’s chances of delinquency (Lenzi et al., 2015, p.387). As such, it is noticeable that most members of the Hells Angels have had some sort of weakened tie within their respective families as well as a criminally inclined entourage. For example, ex-Hells Angels member Dayle Fredette’s parents divorced when he was a child and during his elementary school years, he developed close ties with two people that would later become members of the Hells Angels aswell. As another example, when Stéphane Gagné was five years old, his godfather was assassinated, his uncle was already a member of the Hells Angels and Stéphane was victim of bullying as a young child (Blanchet, 2017,p.151).

The social learning theory supports the fact that weak social ties and positive reinforcement behaviours towards deviance in various contexts such as family, school or friends are what increases the likelihood of individuals to result to deviant activities. The modelling theory sustains that future deviants are raised in a social setting where criminality is already present and therefore, deviance becomes normalized. Both these theories resemble themselves because they state that deviant behaviours are reinforced by the social contexts in which certain people evolve. A psychologist would view the crimes for which the members of the Hells Angels were accused; gangsterism, murder and drug trafficking as a cause of “observational learning, positive reinforcement, and the development of a system of beliefs justifying deviant behavior” (Lenzi et al., 2015, p.387). In this case, these members would have learnt their devious ways from family and, or friends through an observation of, for example, an excessive amount of violence within their environment. Consequently, the future Hells Angels gang members would have been witnessing this in their everyday lives and thus, would have started showcasing “a low perception of guilt for potential deviance, a higher tolerance of deviance, and the use of neutralizing and moral disengagement strategies to justify antisocial behavior” (Lenzi et al., 2015, p.388). As stated by Alleyne & Wood in their research on “psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang member”, the latter are factors that increase the risks of being “affiliated with a gang” (Lenzi et al., 2015, p. 388). The crimes committed by the individuals in the case study of Printemps 2001 can therefore be explained by the argument that the accused were surrounded by highly deviant contexts and that these behaviours thus became normal and acceptable. 

Studies have shown that weak social bonds within a family can lead to an individual having low levels of empathy and low self-esteem. These are significant factors that can lead someone into becoming a gang member. In an article published by Stretesky and Progrebin on gangs and gun violence, they analysed that young people affiliated to gangs said that the gang’s in which they were members provided them with “opportunities for companionship and support” and made them feel that their respective gangs provided them with a feeling of reliability on others in hard moments (Lenzi et al., 2015, p. 387).

In 1916, Freud published an analysis that he named “Criminality from a Sense of Guilt”. In his work, he suggests that crime is committed by individuals with “tremendous unconscious guilt and overdeveloped superegos who seek to be caught and punished” (Belser, (n.d.), p.1). This can be applicable to the Hells Angels in a sense that they constantly commit acts of crime and as such, criminality results in a normal behaviour and way to resolve issues. Because deviance is a recurrent activity for this criminal organization, the sense of guilt becomes nonexistent. Furthermore, to support Freud’s statement that criminals have overdeveloped egos, the behaviours showcased by Maurice Boucher are the perfect example. Maurice Mom Boucher is the leader of the Hells Angels and the mastermind behind the idea of declaring war to the opposing gang, the Rock Machines, to obtain the control of the drug market. He has a history of convictions in the criminal justice system but in 1998, when he was trialled for the murder of two prison guards, he was declared not guilty. That same night, he received a round of applause from the crowd at the Bell Centre, celebrating his victory. He constantly showed himself in public and did not miss an opportunity to smile when the cameras were on him; he even smiled on his mugshot (Blanchet, 2017, p.176). This example supports the argument that the members of the Hells Angels feel untouchable and demonstrate a big ego. It can almost seem like by showing themselves in public and smiling at the cameras, they believe the criminal system will never be able to dismantle their organization and are making fun of the police by showing them that they will never be able to stop them.

Attachment theory is qualified as a “behavior associated in the formation of significant relationships” (Nugent, 2013). Bowlby illustrates this through children’s attachment to their caregivers and their feeling of distress when they are separated (Nugent, 2013). The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club is one that reinforces the theory of attachment of a person to their club. Sony Barger, founder of the Hells Angels California, forwards that being part of this criminal club dominates someone’s life to the point of excluding every other aspect that isn’t the Motorcycle Club and that “their identities are closely tied to both their bikes and their club” (Quinn, 2001, p.382). This bond to the club is also showcased through their multiple tattoos, jewelry and clothing that sport logos and colors of the club. The logo, Angels Forever, Forever Angels signifies that the members of the Hells Angels MC are a fraternity that support one another through life and death (Blanchet, 2017, p.41). Sony Barger states that the typical biker has an introvert type of personality and that the club is built of likeminded people. As such, their bonds are intensified by their rejection from society and their loyalty and fraternity is due to their distrust for the outside world (Quinn, 2001, p.384). As mentioned previously, Maurice Boucher was the mastermind who declared war to the Rock Machines in order to gain control over the province’s drug trafficking.  In this sense, because all of these members have a tightly knitted bond, they were all willing to risk their own lives and commit murders, for which they were convicted in the trial of Printemps 2001. In sum, these deviants are in no need of the white picket fence life because they have all they need within the Motorcycle Club. 

Behavioural theory is composed of three factors that lead to a certain behaviour; the attitudes towards the behaviour, the subjective norms and the perceived behavioural control. The attitudes towards the behaviour, in other words, the positive or negative evaluation of the behaviour and its outcome. The subjective norms are the types of pressure an individual feels from their perceptions of what other people think he should do. The perceived behavioural control is the facility or difficulty to perform the behaviour (Morris, J., Marzano, M., Dandy, N. & O’Brien, L. ,2012, p. 5). The crimes for which some members of the Hells Angels were convicted in the trial case of Printemps 2001 can be explained by these same factors. Firstly, as stated by Morselli in his analysis of the case study, the beliefs about the behaviour outcome were ultimately believed to be about “climbing the ladder within the hierarchy as the motivational force driving all to participate in criminal activities” (Morselli, 2009, p.150). Secondly, the evaluation of the expected outcome would have most likely not been thought of in great depth considering deviance is a normalized behaviour for these gangs, as developed in the psychoanalytical criminology sub-section previously. Thirdly, the normative beliefs and the motivation to comply could both be caused by the pressure exerted by the club members to attain their goal and eradicate the opposing members of the Rock Machines. It can be the pressure of impression management, to appear positively to other members of the club in order to obtain a promotion of status; from hang-around to prospect for example. The behaviour can be an outcome of the perceived reward obtained during the biker war from 1994 to 2002. In fact, killing a member of the opposition guaranteed a monetary reward varying from 25 000 to 100 000 dollars (Blanchet, 2017, p. 124). For instance, one of the requirements to become a club member is to be a drug distributer on a given territory. Fourthly, the beliefs about capability and control are based on whether the deviant behaviour is easy or difficult to commit. If the rewards are higher than the risks, then the deviant will most likely pursue his criminal behaviour whereas the opposite is also true (Morris, J., Marzano, M., Dandy, N. & O’Brien, L., 2012, p.6).

Sociological Perspectives

Pic © Rock Machines
Sociologists view the post Second World War society as being in a state of crisis. The state’s abilities to cope with crime were untrusted by citizens as well as the ability to develop a good education for children, promote a community life in the urban areas and a health system that sent most people with signs of mental illness directly to psychiatric hospitals. The outcome is the birth of the Hells Angels in 1948 in Fontana, California by a group of retired military pilots. These ex-military force soldiers were unable to reintegrate the normal world after the Second World War and thus, founded their very own club where many people just like themselves were members (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.15). In the first chapter of Criminology, the basics, Walklate states that “according to the Chicago School, social disorganization was the root of all social problems including crime” (2011, p.13). Radical criminologists also believe that criminal behaviour is rooted in the societies’ structures. This argument was especially supported by Marxists who believed that it was a consequence of capitalism because of the inequality distribution of wealth, influence and power. The functionalists also believe that the laws are created in favor of those in power but made to have the appearance that it is for the benefit of everyone. Both these theories, radical and functionalist, state that crime is different depending on class hierarchy. Lower class crimes are more visible whereas upper class criminal activity is more subtle, such a white-collar crimes (Livesey, (n.d.), p.8). A sociologist that supports these theoretical views can explain the deviance of the Hells Angels members by the fact that they are committing crimes that are representative of the lower classes.

In a 2009 publishing by Eltzen, Smith and Zinn, it was discussed that most Americans actually believe the reason people are poor can be explained by a set of cultural factors. In this case, poverty would be caused by personal factors and is “inevitable, just and necessary” (2009, p.204). As such, the poorer people in society have a specific set of values and beliefs that differ from any other class. As a result of these divergent values and beliefs, deviance is explained by a cultural pattern that is taught to children from their parents and peers through socialization. Deviance in the less wealthy families was a real problematic and to resolve this issue, the welfare reform of 1996 in the United States was actually put into effect in order for the recipients to stop transmitting deviant values to their children (Smith, Eltzen and Zinn, 2009, p.203). Continuing on this thought, the deviant culture in which the members of criminalized clubs such as the Hells Angels prosper can therefore be explained by the fact that people from the lower strata of societies are more likely to be inclined in deviant behaviours such as gangsterism. Social learning theory states that learning a deviant behaviour is done through the same way as learning any other behaviour. Edward Sutherland, one of the primary thinkers of social learning theory, forwarded that learning of the deviant behaviour occurs through processes of interaction with others, imitation of others and reinforcement of the deviant behaviour (Tolle, 2017, p.871). Edward Sutherland calls this the differential association and it refers to the “shared norms and behaviours” of the individuals that spend a great amount of time together. This “association” is what brings someone to think of a deviant behaviour as being acceptable and furthermore, brings a group of people into thinking certain behaviours are normal; the hells angels resolving to murdering, drug selling and gangsterism as a way of life (Tolle, 2017, p.871). Social control theory is found whenever a group shares the same norms and values of what is right and wrong. The way the Hells Angels demonstrate a form of social control is through their policies and laws that clearly express the values of the club and the goals. “There exists, within the realm of the Hells Angels organization and its affiliated gangs, a well-established hierarchical structure and mode of function in which each individual has a role. There is also interdependence between members and the diverse crimes that they commit” (Morselli, 2009, p.149). Firstly, at the top of the hierarchical pyramid is the Hells Angels World, which ensures the good functioning of the clubs at a national level. Secondly, Hells Angels Canada has the task of assuring the good functioning of the three Canadian divisions; the West coast, the East coast and central Canada. Thirdly, there are the regional clubs, for instance; Hells Angels Montreal (Blanchet et al., 2017, p. 35).

Each club has their own hierarchy; at the top of the pyramid is the executive, composed of the most affluent members of the club, the president, the vice-president, a sergeant of arms and a secretary. Concerning the other members of the club, there are is also the implementation of a hierarchical chart. One must begin as a friend. The next step is the hang-around, where you must devote 24 hours a day to the club and always be around the motorcycle club. Then one must become a prospect which is a crucial step as you have almost become a member of the club. Usually, one year after being a prospect comes the full-patch. To be a full patch member it is required to have committed a series of crime and one of them was to kill the opposition during the war between the Hells Angels and the Rock Machines (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.36). Being a member of the club not only comes with a clear hierarchy, it also comes with a set of rules to follow. A couple of the rules are; all the members must possess a Harley-Davidson, rapes are prohibited, a year after being a full-patch member one can get the Hells Angel’s emblem tattooed and a member that leaves the club in bad standing will be executed, or have his tattoos removed or covered (Blanchet et al., 2017, p. 16). The way the club is structured and the rules that the members must comply with are a demonstration that this organized crime group shares the same values and beliefs. As such, a sociologist could explain the murder’s, the drug trafficking and gangsterism charges as inevitable for these deviants. They could not have chosen to not participate in these criminal activities because they are obliged to share the same values and beliefs. 

Primary deviance occurs when someone decides to achieve the status of a Hells Angels member. A Hells Angels member usually flaunts his colours and emblem’s at all times. As a result, other people will associate their physical appearance with the label of criminal. These individuals are not only labelled but also stigmatized as criminals. As a consequence, the label and stigmatic shaming are very difficult to escape once you have embodied it. For example, in the society of the Hells Angels, once someone exits the gang life, the remaining active members of the club fear that the exited member will become a “rat” and sell information to the police. Fearing that their life is on the line, one might decide to remain within the club. As another example, the members that left the gang life behind will most likely experience difficulties in finding an occupation because of their past. A sociologist could argue that because someone has been labelled as such, they were no longer able to escape the label and live a “normal” life. Therefore, these deviants would have resulted in secondary deviance because the gang life is all they knew; it assured them a certain protection, guaranteed an income and is where they felt accepted.

Biological Perspective

Octave Edition
Studies have shown through MRI’s that the prefrontal cortex of the brain is the last part of the brain to develop and it is only fully developed once someone has reached adulthood age. The prefrontal cortex is important because it is responsible for “making reasoned judgements and modulating emotions” (Beaver & Walsh, 2016, p.1096). The reason delinquency is more often than not first found at an adolescent stage in someone’s life is because the brain has not yet fully developed. The average age of members of the Hells Angels averages between 21 and 40 years old (Hopper & Moore, 1983, p.58). Taking in consideration that it takes approximately five years to become a full-patch member, age can be a crucial factor in explaining deviance. Because the prefrontal cortex of these young adults hasn’t reached its fully developed stage, it can lead these people to have bad judgments and misread their emotions, pushing them to commit crimes that they have not been able to fully understand the consequences of. Hans Jürgen Eysenck’s theory about crime lies in the personality of the deviants. Based on his writing in Crime and Personality, he states that “the explanation of human behavior lies in personality and that the explanation of personality lies in biology” (Rafter, 2006, p.42). Unlike Lombroso’s theory of the born criminal, Eysenck recognizes that criminals are not necessarily analogous; some are “unusually emotional and unstable [and] unusually outgoing and driven to seek diversion” whereas some are totally introverted, solitary and dull. Regardless of these exceptions he states that introverts are more likely to become criminals (Rafter, 2006, p.43). Furthermore, the introverted personality would be due to genetics. Supporting this argument is Hunter S. Thompson’s and Sony Barger’s statement that bikers were, before their club membership, “disconnected loners” or in another sense, introverts (Marsden & Sher, 2005, p. 219). Therefore, the club revolves around the association of like-minded loners. 

A second study conducted by Eysenck argues that the capacity to be conditioned is hereditary because it is influenced by parts of the nervous system that are ascribed at birth. Considering that conditioning, through forms such as praising or punishing, leads to moral behavior is therefore also a predisposing aspect to crime because criminals/introverts condition slower than extroverts and consequently do not respect the morals of behaviour as much. Eysenck’s hypothesis was tested on a sample of a total of 101 children, some of who were introverted and others extroverted, all growing up in the same environment. This study showed that the introverted kids were more likely to resolve to theft and prostitution, whereas the extroverted kids had a better chance of not resulting in behaviour such as these and being able to escape their faith. As such, the notion of “man being a biosocial organism” is put forward (Rafter, 2006, p.49). To support his arguments that crime is a biological consequence, Eysenck studied different sets of twins. For the first set he found that identical twins were “concordant in 71 percent of cases for adult crime” and that fraternal twins were in agreement for adult crime 34 percent of the time. As such, heredity would provide a critical predisposition to crime (Rafter, p.43). Regarding the convictions of the Hells Angels on the basis of murder, gangsterism and drug trafficking it is interesting to notice that some of the accused are from the same families. For example, Maurice Boucher and his son, Francis Boucher, were both convicted for murder. Two of the gang members that were murdered during the guerre des motards were Johnny and Tony Plescio, both founders of the Rock Machines motorbike clubs. Although the latter were not found guilty in this specific case trial, (Boisvert et al., 2003, B6) these examples reinforce the biological theories advances by Eysenck. Therefore, as a biological view of the crimes committed in the criminal case of Printemps 2001, the deviants would have primarily been introverts and have resulted to crime as a reason of slower conditioning.

Criminological Other

Kerri Krysko on her wedding day with her full patch Hells Angel ex-husband.
Pic © Kerri Krysko
The Criminological Other refers to the opposite of the criminals that are the main focus of the “criminological agenda”. As such, the criminological other is the unexpected criminal (Walklate, 2011, p.10). In criminology, the focus is on the “lower-class, ethnic minority male”. The focus of these studies was showcasing less light regarding the white middle-class men as well as women (Walklate, 2011, p.27). The members of the Hells Angels are on average mostly white males, some of which belong to the lower-class and others who are found in the upper-class. The Hells Angels are comparable to a business whose main goal is to generate profit. In fact, the narcotics trafficking created a 111 million dollar income for the Hells Angels in less than a year, from the 30th of March 1999 to the 19th of December 2000. Although this income is not distributed equally amongst the members, the higher ranked in the hierarchy have the opportunity of putting some of the profits into their pockets. Each member is responsible for their own given territory to sell drugs and 10% of the profits go back to the club and the remaining is theirs (Boisvert et al., 2003, B3). Therefore, it is highly probable that the members make quite a substantial amount of wealth in a year. In opposition, as Sylvain Boulanger mentions in Le livre noir des Hells Angels, the prospective members are usually interested in become a member of the Hells Angels gang primarily for the power but also for the wealth that it brings (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.10). This can then be interpreted as males from the lower-class wanting to enrich themselves and the desire for power can be seen as a motivation to climb the hierarchical ladder.  All in all, it is possible to hypothesise that most male members are from the lower class when they first get involved within the gang but that their wealth swells. That being said, some Hells Angels members can correspond to the criminological other because of their low-class status but rarely are they belonging to the ethnic minority. Therefore, can we really speak of them as criminological others? Not so much. On the other hand, the totally underestimated criminals within this gang are the wives of the members. They are a clear representation of the criminological other. The women who are usually viewed as the victim are in this case fully involved in crime. They were partners in crime for the Hells Angels members as the police were unconcerned with their activities. These women played a role in the drug trafficking, had cars and companies under their names and made sure the criminal affairs kept functioning while their husbands were imprisoned. Their role has been qualified as fundamental for the success of the motorcycle club (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.211).

Who Are The Victims?

R.I.P. Daniel Desrochers, 11  yrs.
Pic © La Presse
Based off of the analysis of this case study, it is safe to say that the primary victims are the members of society, the individuals that have nothing to do with the affairs of the Hells Angels but who are at the wrong place, at the wrong time. The raging war from 1994 to 2002 in between the Hells Angels and the Rock Machines caused the death and injury of 29 innocent victims (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.15). Furthermore, the members of the Hells Angels are their very own victims. They find themselves socialized into an environment of deviance and are willing to risk their very own lives in order for their club to persist through everything. The biker war has taken 165 lives and injured 181 members of the two different gangs. The members of these criminal organizations are ready to put aside their lives, some of them have wives and kids, in order to devote themselves to the club, even if it means being imprisoned or dead. For them, it is and will always be, Angels Forever, Forever Angels (Blanchet et al., 2017, p. 15). The last victims of the Hells Angels society are, as mentioned previously, the wives and children. The wives who have not necessarily chosen that lifestyle are regardless devoted and passionately in love with their husbands. The children are probably the biggest victims of this situation because their social context is ascribed at birth. They risk being labelled as a criminal’s child, a label that will follow them all their life. 


Pic © Hells Angels
Printemps 2001 was a big first step in trying to dismantle the Hells Angels by convicting some of the influential leaders but it was rather utopic to think that it would stop organized crime in the province. In reality, the motorcycle gangs ran out of drugs for three days, took time to recreate the structure of the biker club and regain control of the streets (Blanchet et al., 2017, p.12). This research paper analysed how three different perspectives could essentially explain the deviant acts committed by nine of the accused in the trial of Printemps 2001. As such, the psychological perspective was utilized in explaining personality traits that are associated with deviance. The sociological perspective focused on how society could make deviants and the biological perspective, in a slightly different manner than the psychological perspective, explained how heredity could predetermine who will be deviants in a society. Strengths of these analyses were in explaining the sociological perspective as to why and how people result to deviance because of the importance of empirical data to support the arguments forwarded. Furthermore, the behaviour theory stands as a strong argument because of the importance of examples that can be utilized in illustrating each concept.  As of the weakness of this research paper, further studies should be conducted on the heredity of biological factors and the correlation to deviance. Lombroso’s theories were strongly supported by researchers and the public but nowadays, it has fallen in the forgotten and would be interesting in having more and newer evidence supporting or infirming the importance of heredity on deviance. Finally, not many research papers have been specifically conducted on the case study of Printemps 2001. Therefore, the use of research papers conducted on Hells Angels in the United States were used as a comparison aspect in explaining deviance in relation to the three disciplines showcased throughout this research. For the purpose of this research, it would have been interesting to analyse how the media portray crimes and how it influences members of the societies. For example, if it install fear or a feeling of safety and so on. Furthermore, for further research ideas, it would be interesting to focus solely on the wives of the Hells Angels and their implications in the crime and how they got involved in the world of organized crime. Ideally, the same three perspectives utilized in this paper could be used to explain the reason why these females result to the deviant lifestyle as they are the representation of the criminological other. 


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About Keisha Tomasik

Keisha Tomasik studied at Bishop's University located in Quebec, Canada. Criminological Perspectives: Quebec 1% Biker Wars was written as part of a term paper for a course titled SOC208 Criminology in the Department of Sociology.

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